Type section of the Formations in Iraq: See related photos and GPS locations

Type section of the Formations in Iraq

Dear Geologists, professor Kamal Haji Karim  try to collect  photos  of all type sections of the Formations in Iraq. He tries to organize all photos in a report and the present below photos are part of that report. The aim of this report is helping  our students to better understanding of the geology of Iraq.

The type section of Pila  Spi Formation (locally Kela Spy village) which mean white tomb stone is now covered by the water of Darbandikhan dam, so another section is indicated by previous authors near Kasti village about 12km to the north of Darbandikan town on the road between Sulaimani city and above town.  the  above photo  belongs to this new section, GPS   location  35o  09 12.39= N,   45o 41 39.76=

  Type section of Tanjero Formation, GPS   Location 35o  07 21.00= N,   45o 53 12.76=

Type section   of  Aqra  Formation

Type section   of  Bekhme Formation,GPS   location  36o  42 02.82= N,   44o 16 06.06=

Typesection of Kometan Formation, GPS   location  36o  24 07.61= N,   44o 57 29.24=

Tye section of Dokan and Gulneri Shale formations  along road cut near Dokan dam, Sulaimani

GPS   location  35o  57 08.59= N,   44o 57 03.36=

                               Type section of Sarmord Formation, GPS   location  35o  54 32.49= N,   45o 01 50.30=

Type section  of Sarmord Formation,  GPS   location  35o  54 32.49= N,   45o 01 50.30=  

                                           Type section of Balambo Formation, GPS  location  35o  05 53.28= N,   45o 55 17.36=

                            Type section of  Balambo Formation (See A in the previous) photo

                           Type section of Barsarin Formation,GPS   location  36o  37 23.99= N,   44o 39 38.09=

 Type section of Sargelu  Formation, GPS   location 35o  52 03.28= N,   45o 09 50.41=

Type section  of Sargelu  Formation, GPS   location 35o  52 03.28= N,   45o 09 50.41=

  Type section of  Naokelekan Formation,GPS   location  36o  36 03.64= N,   44o 44 21.08=

  Type section of  Naokelekan Formation

Type section of Sehkaniyan Formation, GPS   location  35o  52 32.03= N,   45o 08 12.43= E  

Type section of  Khabour quartzite Formation,GPS  location  37o  15 55.19= N,   43o 09 07.69= E


 Type section of Sagerma Formation

This formation is proposed by Lawa (2004) in his PhD thesis and indicated its type section on the Southwestern limb of Sagerma (or Sagrma) anticline at about 14 kms to the southwest of Qaradagh town (Fig.1 a). At the latitude and longitude of 35 20  01.57N and 45 15  41.70 E respectively.

The location and  field photos that are published  by the above author is  checked by  the present author and the checking proved that  the claimed formation is consist of  Pila Spi  Formation and equivalent of Gercus (Kurmala Formation) which repeated by refolding  along the southwestern limb of Sargrma anticline.

In this thesis, Lawa mentioned a name of a paper under the title of . Lawa, F. A, 2004, in press: New proposed lithostratigraphic rock unit, Sagerma Formation of Middle Eocene age, Sulanimanyia District ”.  The   name of Sagerma  formation is appeared in abstracts by Amen (2008), Lawa, and   Albayati, (2008) and in Cenozoic stratigraphic column of Middle East by Al-Husseini (2008).Unfortunately the published   full text of the above latter four papers not appeared yet.

The occurrence of Khurmala Formation   is mentioned by Karim (1997) in Sartak Bamo Area about 25km to the southeast of Darbandikhan town (see   http://kurdistan-geology.com/?p=384). He referred to a succession of marly limestone (about 20 m thick) as Khurmala Formation above Sinjar Formation.   He found Gypsum nodules and dwarfed fossils in it.

lawa sagrrma one photo (2)Fig.(1a)  the type section of Sagerma (Sagrma) formation by Lawa ( 2014)


lawa sagrrma wwFig.(1b) the same area  of the above photo which show that the Sagerma Formation consist of repetition of Pila Spi and Khurmala (equivalent of Gercus Fn) Formations by folding

Sagrma lawa Sagrmw pila spiFig(1c) photo of Lawa (2004) who claimed to  show Sagrma Formation but the formation is repition of Pila Spi Formation by folding


 Type section of Hadiena Formation

The studied section (type section) is located at the 200 m south of Hadiena village  at  30 km to the north of Amedi town. Globally, Its location approximately is  along longitude 43°20’54” E, with base at about lat. 37°14’29” N, 700 meters south of the stream which runs east-west, immediately to the north of the village, and with top at lat. 37°14’02” N, about 1380 meters south of stream.

hadiena section photo

The type section of Hadiena Formation

detai map village3 Location of type section of Hadiena formation Near Kani  Massi town in Barwari Bala area


  Al-Husseini, M  I. 2008. Launch of the Middle East Geologic Time Scale. GeoArabia, Vol. 13, No. 4.

Lawa, F, A, 2008. Sequence Stratigraphy and Basin Modeling of the Eocene Succession from Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq (Abstract). GEO 2008–Middle East Conference and Exhibition, March 2-5, 2008, Manama, Bahrain.

Lawa, F.A. and F.A. Albayati, 2008. Sequence stratigraphy, facies associations and petroleum systems of Maastrictian, Selandian, Thanetian, Ypresian and Lutetian successions from Kurdistan region, northeast Iraq. GeoArabia, v. 12, no. 2, p. 208 (abstract).

Karim, K. H. 1997. Stratigraphy of the Sartak-Bamo area, Northeastern Iraq, Journal of Iraqi Geological Society (in press)

Ameen ( or Lawa), F., A.  (2008) Sequence Stratigraphy and Basin Modeling of the Eocene Succession from Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq. AAPG Search and Discovery Article # 90077,  GEO 2008 Middle East Conference and Exhibition, Manama, Bahrain


Post Author: Professor Kamal Haji Karim

Professor at Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq